The 21-year-old topped the poll with 1,560 points, just 21 points more than her nearest rival weightlifter Thach Kim Tuan (1,539 points).
Runner Le Tu Chinh came third winning 1,274 points.
Vien convinced voters, about 200 journalists, with her great performance at different competition throughout the year.
Apart from medals that she took in the United States (US) where she is training, Vien was gold-hope of Vietnam in all sport festivals and she made it.
The girl brought home two golds, one silver and set a new record at the Asian Indoor Games and Martial Arts (AIMAG) in September in Turkmenistan after eight top podium finishes along with three records at the Malaysian Southeast Asian Games in August.
It was Vien’s strong comeback after failing to win the award in 2016 to Olympic winning marksman Hoang Xuan Vinh.
Earlier, she dominated the category for three years in a row from 2013 to 2015.
Lifter Tuan, 23, was considered the heaviest contender to win his first award of career after earning three gold medals from the World Weightlifting Championships in the men’s 56kg category in the US last month.
Earlier he grabbed a title from the Asian Indoor Games and Martial Arts (AIMAG) in September in Turkmenistan and another one at the Malaysian Southeast Asian Games in August.
Chinh, 19, is a new rising sprinter but shone at her SEA Games debut with a hat-trick and one record. She also brought home one AIMAG silver and two bronzes from the Asian Grand Prix Series.
Other athletes in the top 10 were gymnast Le Thanh Tung, chess master Le Quang Liem, runner Nguyen Thi Huyen, and long jumper Bui Thi Thu Thao, in addition to wushu martial artist Duong Thuy Vi, swimmer Nguyen Huu Kim Son and weightlifter Trinh Van Vinh.
In the Best Coach of the Year pool, football trainer Mai Duc Chung topped the list of five nominees with 593 points.
Chung was successful in helping the national women’s team to win the gold medal at the Malaysian SEA Games.
This is the fifth time Vietnam have claimed the title after winning gold medals in 2001, 2003, 2005 and 2009, equalling Thailand’s record.
He also played key role guiding the national men’s squad to earn a slot in the 2019 Asian Cup finals.
Weightlifting coach Huynh Huu Chí came second, followed by swimming coach Dang Anh Tuan.
Powerlifter Le Van Cong concluded his great year with the award for Best Athlete with Disabilities of 2017.
Cong score 880 points to claim his third time receiving the award following the years of 2015 and 2016.
Swimmer Vo Thanh Tung, the 2014 winner, finished second and powerlifter Nguyen Binh An was third.
With two athletes in the top three of the Best Athletes with Disabilities, coach Nguyen Hong Phuc, took his the Coach of Best Athletes with Disabilities award this year. It was his third one in a row.